the most straightforward way is going by
the filters menu on top.
That is containing quite a lot of filters built in
to choose from.
However, due to its regular menu item limitations,
it's not a very helpful for choosing.
There is no visual indication built in of the filters
affecting a preview object's appearance,
nor there is an option to go through all
like when previewing a font and styling on a text object.
It's all pure luck to find a suiting filter by first pick.
Either it takes applying the filters one after another
on the object selected and undoing every time
the outcome is not right, or having a sneak peek on
a guide image where all the filters are displayed in action.
The current (not yet up to date) manual is taking
19 pages to showcase them all.
If inkscape was installed with the example files,
check the filters.svg located in
inkscape/share/examples to see an all-in-one action shot.